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Topic: Salvaged from Wayback - Amen

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Salvaged from Wayback - Amen



The natural genesis of such a monstrous doctrine can be traced on two lines of descent. One of these has its starting-point in the theological victim being slain as a scapegoat in a sacrifice that was held to be piacular. The blood of the sin offering thus acquired the character of the atoning blood. According to the Christian doctrine, “All things are cleansed with blood, and apart from the shedding of blood there is no remission” (Heb. ix., 22). On the other line of descent, the idea of purification by blood was derived from a human origin, and not merely from the blood of the animal that was slain as a sacrifice for sin. This is one of the origins that were unfolded to the initiated by the teachers of the secret wisdom in the mysteries. The earliest form of the purifying blood was female. It was first the blood of the virgin mother, the blood of Isis, the blood of the incarnation, the flowing blood, the element in which Horus manifested when he came by blood, the blood on which the rite of purification was founded as a natural mode of cleansing. This is the one sole origin in the whole realm of nature for the blood which cleanseth, and it was in this feminine phase that a doctrine of purification by blood was established for the use of later theology when the sacrificial victim had been made a male who was held to have shed the atoning, purifying, saving blood upon a tree. There was no other way by which a soul was ever saved by blood than this act of salvation effected by the virgin mother. There never was any other incarnation than this of Horus in the blood of Isis, and no other saviour by blood was possible in the whole domain of unperverted nature. Neither could the transaction be made historical, nor the saviour personal, not if every tree on earth were cut into the figure of across with the effigy of a bleeding human body hung on every bough. Purification by means of blood then originated in the blood of Isis, the virgin mother of the human Horus, who, as the red child, calf or Iamb, personated that purification by blood which became doctrinal in the eschatology. To substitute the blood of a Jew shed on a cross as a [Page 234] means of making the purification for sins and the mode of cleansing souls in the “blood of the Iamb” for the natural purification of the mother was the grossest form of profanity, inconceivably impious to those who knew the mystical nature of the doctrine and its origin in human phenomena continued as a typical purification by blood that was practised in the mysteries, either by baptism or sprinkling with blood, or drinking blood, or eating the “bloody wafer” of the Roman eucharist.The natural blood sacrifice was feminine. The typical blood sacrifice was that of the red calf, the Iamb, or the child. The Iamb on the cross was the Christian victim until the eighth century A.D., at which time the man was permanently substituted for the Iamb, and the blood sacrifice was thenceforth portrayed as human and historical. A doctrine of voluntary sacrifice was founded from the time when the human mother gave herself to be eaten with honour by her children in the most primitive form of the mortuary meal. She offered her flesh to be eaten and her blood to be drunk; she gave herself as a natural blood sacrifice on which the typical was founded when the female totem as a cow, a bear, or other animal was made a substitute for the human mother. Also, when the earth was looked upon as the mythical mother of food and drink who was a wet-nurse in the water, and who gave herself bodily to her children for food, the sacrifice was typically continued if! totem ism when the animal supplied the sacramental food. As before shown, the earliest form of voluntary sacrifice was female. The human mother as victim was repeated in the mythology as divine, the mother in elemental nature; she who gave her flesh and blood as life to her children was then continued as a type in .the more mystical phase. Hence came salvation by the blood of Isis-that is, by the virgin blood in which Horus was incarnated and made flesh, as the saviour who thus came by blood.


A Spaniard, who was paying expensively to regain the lost favour of the Holy Virgin, on being told by his priest that Mary had not yet forgiven him, is said to have shaken his fist in the face of his fetish and to have reminded her that she need not be so proud in her present position, as he had known her ever since she was only a bit of green plum tree. The ancient Egyptians knew the natural origins of their symbols and dogmas. Christians have mistaken the bit of green plum tree for an historical virgin.


The earliest form of god the father who became a voluntary sacrifice in Egypt was Ptah in the character of Sekari, the silent sufferer, the coffined one, the deity that opened up the nether-world for the resurrection in the solar mythos. As solar god he went down into Amenta. There he died and rose again, and thus became the resurrection and the way into a future lire as founder of Egyptian eschatology. Atum the son of Ptah likewise became the voluntary sacrifice as the source of life, but in another way and more apparent form. The mother human and divine had given life with her blood, and now the father, who was blended with the mother in Atum, is portrayed as creator of mankind by the shedding of his own blood.

In the cult of Ptah at Memphis and Atum at On there was a strenuous endeavour made to set creative source as male above the female. Hence it was said of the symbolic beetles that there was [Page 235] “no female race among them” (Hor-Apollo, B. I., 10). In cutting the member, Atum showed that he was the creator by the blood shed in a voluntary sacrifice. Male source is recognized, but according to what had preceded as the mother element, blood still remained a typical essence of creative life. And this is apparently illustrated by the rite of circumcision. The custom pertains, world over, to the swearing-in of the youths when they join the ranks of the fathers or begetters and follow the example of Atum as the father Ra, who was previously Horus the son. Atum, like Ptah, was also the typical sacrifice in the earth of eternity, who gave his life as sun god and as the master of food that sprang up for the Manes in Amenta. Osiris follows. In him the human mother who first gave herself to be eaten, and the great mother Isis, who was the saviour by blood, were combined with god the father in a more complete and perfect sacrifice as mother and father of the race in one. Lastly, the son as Horus or as Iusa is made a vicarious sacrifice, not, however, as an atonement for sin, but as voluntary sufferer instead of his mother or his father. For in the Kamite scheme the mother never is omitted. Hence, when Horus comes in the character of the red god who orders the block of execution with the terrifying face of Har-Shefi. as the avenger of the afflictions suffered by his father ( or by himself in his first advent), it is he “ who lifteth up his father and who lifteth up his mother with his staff” (Rit., ch. 92, Renouf). Egypt, however, had anticipated Rome in attaining the “unbloody sacrifice” that was represented by the wafer, or loaf, of Horus as the bread of heaven, which took the place of flesh meat in the eucharistic meal, whilst retaining the beer or wine, as substitute for blood, in representing the female element. Thus Horus was eaten as the bread of life, and his blood was drunk in the red ale, or wine, as the final form in Egypt of the sacrificial, voluntary, living victim that had been the human mother, the typical mother, the totemic anima!, the cow of Hathor, the fish, the goose, the calf, the lamb, the victim in various forms, each one of which, down to the lentils and the corn, was figurative of the beneficent sacrifice that from the first was typical of a power in nature, call it mother or son, father, goddess or god, that provided food and drink, accompanied with an idea of sacrifice in the giving of life when blood was looked on as the life.

“How many sacraments hath Christ ordained in His Church?” is asked in the Prayer-book, and the answer is, “Two only as generally necessary to salvation-that is to say, baptism and the supper of the Lord”.And both of these were Egyptian thousands of years earlier. The proof is preserved in that treasury of truth, the Ritual of the resurrection. In the first chapter of the Ritual (Turin Papyrus) it is said by the priest, “I lustrate with water in Tat tu and anoint with oil, in Abydos”. We might call the Egyptians very particular Baptists for in the first ten gates of Elysium -or entrances to the great dwelling of Osiris the deceased is purified at least ten times over in ten separate baptisms, and ten different waters in which the gods and goddesses had been washed to make the water holy (Ritual, ch. 145). The inundation was the water of renewal to the life of Egypt, and this natural fact was the source and origin of a doctrine of baptismal regeneration. The salvation that came to Egypt in the [Page 236] Nile was continued in the Egyptian eschatology as salvation by water. ..I. give thee the liquid or humidity which ensures salvation”, is said to the soul of the deceased (Rit., 155, I ). They did not think that souls were saved from perdition by a wash of water or a bath of blood, but bodily baptism was continued as a symbol of purification for the spirit. The deceased explains that he had been steeped in the waters of natron and nitre, or salt, and made pure-pure in heart, pure in his forepart, his posterior part, his middle, and pure all over, so that there is no part of him remaining soiled or stained. The pool of baptism is dual in Amenta. In one part it is the pool of natron, in the other the pool of salt.Both natron and silt were used in preparing the mummy of the deceased, and the same process is repeated in the purification of the soul to make it also permanent, which was a mode of salvation. The deceased says, “May I be fortified or protected by seventy purifications“ (Mariette, Mon. divers, pl. 63, I), just as Christians at the present time speak of being “fortified by the sacraments of the Church”. “I purify myself at the great stream (the galaxy), where all my ills are made to cease; that which is wrong in me is pardoned, and the spots which were upon my body upon earth are washed away l' (Rit., ch. 86). “Lo, I come, that I may purify this soul of mine in the most high degree. Let me be purified in the lake of propitiation and of equipoise. Let me plunge into the divine pool beneath the two divine sycamores of heaven and earth” ( ch. 97, Renouf). The pool of purification and healing that was figured in the northern heaven at the pole, and also reproduced in the paradise of Amenta, has been repeated in the Gospel according to John (ch. 5) as the Pool of Bethesda. In the Ritual (ch. 124, part 3) one of two waters is called the pool or tank of righteousness. In this pool the glorified elect receive their final purification and are healed. They are thus made pure for the presence of Osiris. The healing process was timed to take place at certain hours of the night or day. The Turin text gives the fourth hour of the night and the eighth hour of the day. But there are other readings. The Manes, as usual in the gospels, are represented by the “multitude of them that were sick, blind, halt, and withered”, waiting to be healed. The elect or chosen ones are those who are first at the pool when the waters are troubled. Hence the story of the man who was non-elect.

It was a postulate of the Christians, maintained by Augustine and others, that infants who died unbaptized were damned eternally. This doctrine also had its rootage in the mysteries of Amenta. The roots have hitherto been hidden in the earth of eternity which has been mistaken for our earth of time. We are now enabled to exhibit them above ground and hold both root and product up to the light like the bulb of a hyacinth suspended in a glass water-bottle, These can now be studied, roots and all. The flesh that is formed of the mother's blood was held to share in the impurity of the female nature. It was in this sense solely that woman was the author of evil. The Child-Horus born of flesh and blood was the prototype of the unbaptized child-that is, the child unpurified by baptism. Without baptismal regeneration in Tattu there was no blending of the elder Horus with the soul or spirit of Horus divinized. According [Page 237] to the Egyptian doctrine, the development would be arrested and the soul from the earthly body might remain a wretched shade that was doomed to extinction, or, in the Christian perversion, was damned eternally. It was in Amenta that the dead were raised to inherit the second life. The resurrection had no other meaning for the Egyptians. And in the resurrection the Osiris is thus greeted: “ Hail, Osiris ! thou art born twice! The gods say to thee: ' Come ! come forth; come see what belongs to thee in thy house of eternity' ”(ch. 170). It is then that he is changed and renewed in an instant.

In blending the two halves of a soul that was dual in sex, dual also in matter and spirit, into one, according to the mystery of Tat tu, there was a return to the type beyond sex from which the two had bifurcated in the human creation. This one enduring soul was typical of the eternal soul which included motherhood and father-hood in one personality like that of the multi mammalian Osiris which the Child-Horus could only represent in some form of duality that imaged both sexes in one, as do the deities who are figured with one female bosom as a mode of en-onement. Female mummies have been exhumed that were made up wearing the beard of a male. This was another figure of the soul completed by uniting the two halves of sex in one figure, the type affected by the Queen Hatshepsu when she clothed herself in masculine attire and reigned as Mistress Aten. It was the same with the Pharaohs who wore the tail of the cow or lioness. They also included both halves of the perfect soul, as a likeness of the biune being divinized in heaven which they represented on the earth. The doctrine was brought on in the iconography of the gnostic artists when Jesus is figured as a woman with a beard, who is designated the Christ as Saint Sophia ( or Charis ) (Didron, fig. 50), and also when Jesus is depicted in the Book of Revelation as a being of both sexes, a youth with female paps; in the likeness of Osiris, whose male body is half covered with female mammæ, and who is Osiris in the upper and Isis in the lower part of the same mummy. Not only was it necessary to be regenerated and reborn in the likeness of god the father; the Manes could only enter the kingdom of heaven as a being of both sexes or of neither. The two halves of the soul that was established for ever in Tattu were male and female; the soul of Shu was male, the soul of Tefnut female. When these were united in one to form a completed Manes and a perfect spirit the result was a typical creation from both sexes in which there was neither male nor female. This oneness, in the Horus who was divinized, is the oneness in Christ described by Paul “As many of you as were baptized into Christ, did put on Christ. There can be no male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus”. One of the fragments preserved by Clement Alexander and Clement of Rome from the lost gospel of the Egyptians, which is more than fully recoverable in the Ritual, will show the continuity of the doctrine as Egyptian in a gospel that was designated “Egyptian”. The Lord having been asked by Salome when his kingdom would come, replied, “when you shall have trampled under foot the garment of shame; When two shall be one, when that which is without shall be like that which is within, and when the male with the female shall be neither male nor female”. The “garment of [Page 238] shame” was feminine, being as it was of the flesh. On this the Ritual has a word to say. The impurity of matter which came to be ascribed to the mother of all flesh, or female nature, is symbolically shown in the chapters for arranging the funeral bed (Rit., chs. 170-171). This is exemplified by means of the feminine garment-the apron-which is here considered to be a sign of all that was wrong in the deceased; the wrong that was derived from the mother, as elsewhere described in the Ritual, because it is the garb of impurity called “the garment of shame” in the Egyptian gospel, which was to be trampled under foot when the male and female were to be made one in spirit, or as spirit. In the ceremony of “wrapping up the deceased in a pure garment”, the impure one being now discarded is alluded to in ch. 172. When the deceased was stretched upon the funeral bed the body was divested of the apron and clothed in the pure garment of the khus or spirits, “ the pure garment allotted to him for ever” (Rit., ch. 171). But the feminine garment is still worn without shame by the masquerading male as the bishop's apron, which can be traced back as feminine to the loin-cloth and apron first worn by the sex for the most primitive and pitiful of human needs at the time of puberty. The bishop in his apron, like the priest in his petticoat and the clergyman in his surplice, is alikeness of the biune being who united both sexes in one; the modern Protestant equivalent for the Pharaoh with the cow's tail, and Venus with a beard, the mutilated eunuch, or any other dual type


of hermaphrodital deity. Men who masquerade in women's clothing are commonly prosecuted, but the bishop carries on his mummery without even being suspected. He walks about as ignorant of his vestmental origins as any of the passers by. Usually the custom of men dressing in women's clothing is limited to our Easter pastimes, but the bishops still carry it on all through the year.

The Christians prattle about the divine “sonship of humanity”, manifested in the historical Jesus. But they have no divine daughtership, no origin for the soul as female and no female soul. The Jews did all they could to get rid of the female part of the divine nature, and the exigency of the Christian history has suppressed the feminine element altogether in the human type that represented both sexes in humanity as it was set forth by the Egyptians in the mysteries. Finally, it has been frequently asserted that only through the Gospel Jesus has a god of the poor man ever been revealed- a statement most profoundly false. A god of the poor and suffering was personified in Horus the elder. But there is a corollary to the character. He is likewise an avenger of the sufferings. Horus at Edfu is said to protect the needy against the powerful. Also, in the great Judgment Hall the Osiris deceased upon his trial says, “I have not been a land-grabber. I have not exacted more than should be done for me as the first fruits of each day's work” (Rit. ch. 125). Various other statements tend to show that the unjust capitalists of those times had a mortal dread of facing Osiris the divinized judge, who was likewise god of the poor and needy. In an Egyptian hymn the one god, Atum the maker of men, is described as “lying awake while all men lie asleep, to seek out the good of his. [Page 239] creatures” (line 12), “listening to the poor in their distress, gentle of heart when one cries to him. Deliverer of the timid man from the violent, lord of mercy most loving, judging the poor, the poor and the oppressed” (Hymn to Amen-Ra, Records, vol. ii., p. 129). Taht was the recorder in the Judgment Hall. At the weighing of hearts he portrayed the character of the deceased, and in one of the texts it is said that when he placed the heart in the scales against Maati, the goddess of justice, he leaned to the side of mercy, that the judgment might be favourably inclined, as though he exerted a little pressure on the human side of the balance.

It has also been said that the historic Jesus came to glorify the lot of labour, which antiquity despised, whereas the Egyptian paradise was the reward of labour, and Horus the husbandman in the harvest-field of the Aarru is the worker, personified. No one attained the Egyptian heaven but the worker, who reaped solely in proportion as he had sown. The portion of land allotted to the Manes for cultivation in Amenta was enlarged only for those who had been good labourers on earth. The Shebti figures in the tombs are equipped for labour with the plough or hoe in their hands. As agriculturists they put their hands to the plough. There was no unearned increment for loafers in the earth of eternity. A flash of revelation lightens from the cloud of Egypt's past when we learn from the Ritual that a part of the work to be performed in the Aarru paradise or field of harvest in Amenta was to clear away the life-choking sand. These fighters and conquerors of the much. detested desert still retain that image of the earliest cultivators, the makers of the soil which they enclosed and first protected from the drifting, sterilizing sand. The Manes, addressing the Shebti figures, says to them, “O typical ones! If I should be judged worthy of doing the work that has to be done in Amenta, bear witness for me that I am worthy to fertilize the fields, to flush the streams, and transport the sand from west to east” (Rit., ch. 6). He became one of the glorified elect in being judged worthy of the work. This will show that in making the primeval paradise they were still the cultivators who had conquered on earth by their long wrestle with the powers of dearth in the desert when they made their passage through the wilderness of sand and held on to the skirts of Mother Nile, who led them to a land which she herself had made for them to turn into an oasis and a paradise of plenty with her waters for assistance in the war against Apap, or Sut, the Sebau, and the burning Sahara. It may also explain why the Pharaohs from the time of the eleventh dynasty were officially entitled “Masters of the Oasis”, the oasis, that is, which had been created in Egypt by human labour to be localized in Amenta as the promised land that was to be attained at last among the never-setting stars in the oasis of eternity.

The prototypes of hell and purgatory and the earthly paradise are all to be found in the Egyptian Amenta. There is, says the Christian rhymer, Dr. Watts


                             вЂњThere is a dreadful hell


                             And everlasting pains,


                             Where sinners must with devils dwell


                             In darkness, fire, and chains”.

[Page 240] The darkness, fire, and chains, as well as the brimstone, which was the stone of Sut, and other paraphernalia of the Christian hell, are also Egyptian. But the chains were employed for the fettering of Sut, the Apap, and the Sebau, the evil adversaries of Osiris, the good or perfect being, not for the torturing of souls that once were human. The Egyptian hell was not a place of everlasting pain, but of extinction For those who were wicked irretrievably. It must be admitted, to the honour and glory of the Christian deity, that a god of eternal torment is an ideal distinctly Christian, to which the Egyptians never did attain. Theirs was the all-parental god, Father and Mother in one whose heart was thought to bleed in every wound of suffering humanity, and Whose son was represented in the character of the Comforter.

Also the hell-fire of Christian theology, the hell-fire that is unquenchable (Mark ix. 43, 44), is a survival of the representation made in the Egyptian mysteries. The Osiris in Amenta passes through this hell of fire in “which those who are condemned suffer their annihilation. He says, “I enter in and I come forth from the tank (or lake) of flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sekhem” (Rit., ch. I). When the glorified deceased had made his voyage in heaven “over the leg of Ptah” and reached the mount of glory, he exclaims, “I have come from the lake of flame, from the lake of fire and from the field of flame”. He has made his escape from destruction, and attained the eternal city at the pole of heaven. This lake of fire that is never quenched was derived from the solar force in the mythology on which the eschatology was based. Hence the locality was in the east, at the place of sunrise. The wicked were consumed by fire at the place where the righteous entered the solar bark to sail the heavenly waters called the Kabhu, or the cool, and voyage west- ward toward the heaven of the setting stars. The lake of flame was in the east, the lake of outer darkness in the west. For when the bark of Ra or the boat of souls had reached the west at sunset there was a great gulf fixed between the mount called Manu in the west and the starry vault of night, the gulf of Putrata (Rit., ch. 44), where the dead fell into darkness unless supported by Apuat the star-god, by Horus in the moon, and by Ra the solar deity, the visible representatives of superhuman powers in the astronomical mythology.

At the “last judgment” in the mysteries those who had failed to make the word of Osiris truth against his enemies, as the formula runs, were doomed to die a second death. The first was in the body on the earth, the second in the spirit. The enemies of justice, law, truth, and right were doomed to be destroyed for ever in the lake of fire or tank of flame. They were annihilated once for all (Rit., ch. I). The doctrine crops up in the Pauline Epistles and in Revelation, where the end of all is \with a destruction in the lake of fire. In the Epistle to the Hebrews the destruction of lost souls is compared \with that of vegetable matter being consumed by fire. The doctrine, like so many others, was Egyptian, upon \which the haze of ignorance settled down, to cause confusion ever since. Take away the Kamite devil, and the Christian world \mould suffer sad bereavement. The devil was of Egyptian origin, both as “that old serpent” the Apap reptile, the devil \with a long tail, and as Sut, w ho was Satan in ananthropomorphic guise. Sut, the power of drought and darkness in [Page 241] physical phenomena, becomes the dark-hearted evil one, and is then described as causing storms and tempests, going round the horizon of heaven II like one whose heart is veiled” (Rit., ch. 39, Renouf), as the adversary of Osiris the Good Being. The darkness, fire, and chains are all Egyptian. Darkness was mythically represented by the Apap dragon, also as the domain of Sut in the later theology. Darkness in the nether world is identical with the tunnels of Sut in Amenta. The chains are likewise Egyptian, but not for human wear. Apap and the Sebau, Sut and the Sami are bound in chains. It is said to the pre-anthropomorphic devil, “Chains are cast upon thee by the scorpion goddess” (Rit., ch. 39). Sut is also imprisoned with a chain upon his neck (ch. 108). As already explained, the Sebau and the Sami represent the physical forces in external nature that made for evil and were for ever opposed to the Good Being and to the peace of the world. These were always rising in impotent revolt as the hosts of darkness and spawn of Apap, headed by the evil-hearted Sut. They had to be kept under; hence the necessity for prisons, bonds, and chains. The mythical imagery has been continued in the Christian eschatology, and the sinners put in the place of the Sebau, whereas in the Egyptian teaching the sinners, once human, who were irretrievably bad, were put an end to once for all, at the time of the second death, in the region of annihilation (Rit., ch. 18). Coming to an end for ever was, to the Egyptian mind, a prospect worse than everlasting pains, so profound was their appreciation of life, so powerful their will to persist. They represented evil as negation.


Apap is evil and a type of negation in the natural phenomena that were opposed to good. In the eschatology Sut represents negation as nonexistence. Evil culminated in annihilation and non-being for the Manes, and the negation of being, of life, of good, was the ultimate form of evil. The Egyptian purgatory, called the Meskat, is a place of purgation where the primitive mode of purifying may be compared with that of Fulling. It is effected by beating. Hence the Meskat is the place of scourging. The Manes pleads that he may not fall under the knives of the executioners in the place of extermination, as he has “passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat”. In chapter 72 the Manes prays that he may “not be stopped at the Meskat”, or in purgatory, but may pass on to the divine dwelling-place prepared for him by Tum “above the earth”, where he can “join his two hands together”, and eat the bread and drink the beer upon the table of Osiris. The same plea, “Let me not be stopped at the Meskat”, or kept in purgatory , is also uttered by the speaker in chapter 99. The enemies of the Good Being were likewise pilloried. Hence the Manes says, “Deliver me from the gods of the pillory. who fasten (the guilty) to their posts” (ch. 180).

A late attempt has been made on behalf of the Roman Catholic religion to lure people into Hades by showing that it is only a mitigated mourning department; that the devil himself is not so black as hitherto painted, and that there is really a tolerable amount of happiness to be obtained in hell. But this is only looking a little closer into the traditions of Amenta which survived in Rome.They belong to the same original source as that from which the Church derived its doctrines of purgatory, the second death, and other [Page 242] dogmas not to be found in the Gospels. There is no everlasting bonfire of eternal torture in the Egyptian hells, of which there are ten, known as the ten circles of the condemned, in the inferno or divine nether region. The utterly worthless suffer a second death upon the highways of the damned, and are spoken of as those who are no more. The Roman Church continued the dogma of a second death, and then somewhat nullified it by adding punishment of an infinite duration, as being more coercive to all who did or did not zealously believe. There was no other identifiable source for the Christian eschatology than the Egyptian wisdom. The Roman Church was founded on the Ritual. Possibly a version of the original may one day be found preserved in the secret archives of Rome, the text of which would explain numerous pictures in the Catacombs and other works of the gnostic artists who were the actual authors of the Egypto-Christian iconography, not the “few poor fishermen”. The Roman Church will yet find that she is at root Egyptian, and will then seek to slough off the spurious history which by that time will be looked upon as solely incremental.


The Egyptians were the greatest realists that ever lived. For . thousands and thousands of years it was their obvious endeavour at full stretch to reach the ultimate reality of eternal truth. Their interrogation of nature was like the questioning- of children, very much in earnest: “But is it really true?” The real was the quest of their unceasing inquiry. To be real was the end and aim; that was living in truth. The only one god was the real god. Horus in spirit was the real Horus. Reality was royalty. In the time of the fifth dynasty a certain Tep-en-ankh claims to be “the real judge and scribe”, the “real nearest friend of the king”. For them eternal life was the ultimate reality. The Egyptian was pre-eminently a manly religion, and therefore calculated to develop manhood. In the hall of the last judgment the deceased expects justice and equity. His god is a just and righteous judge. He does not pray for mercy or writhe in the dust to seek a sentimental forgiveness for sins, or sue for clemency. His was not a creed of that nature. He knows it is the life, the character, the conduct that will count in the scales of Maati for the life hereafter. The human Horus put in no plea for sinners on account of his sufferings. Divine Horus throws no make-weight into the scale. Deceased is judged by what he has done and by what he has not done in the life on earth. He must be sound at heart. He must have spoken and acted the truth. The word of god must have been made truth by him to be of any avail at the bar of judgment. That was the object of all the teaching in all the mysteries and writings which were held to be divine. The standard of law without and within was set up under the name of Maati or Maat, a name denoting the fixed, undeviating law and eternal rule of right. Hence the same word signifies law, truth, justice, rightfulness, and the later righteousness. The foremost and the final article of the Egyptian creed was to fulfil Maati. This is the beginning, the middle, and the end of the moral law.The deity enthroned by them for worship was the god of Maati, tile name, which has the fourfold meaning of law, justice, truth, and right, which are one as well as synonymous. Judgment with justice was their aim, their alpha and [Page 243] omega, in administering the law which their religious sense had divinized for human use; and its supreme type, erected at the pole, in the equinox, or the Hall of Judgment, was the pair of scales at perfect equipoise, for with them the equilibrium of the universe was dependent on eternal equity.

It may look like taking a flying leap in the dark to pass from the Egyptian Book of the Dead to Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, but whencesoever Bunyan derived the tradition, the Pilgrim's Progress contains all outline of the matter in the Egyptian Ritual. Christian personates the Manes on his journey through the nether earth, with the roll in his hand containing the word of life. The escape from the City of Destruction may be seen in the escape of the deceased from the destruction threatened in Amenta, when he exclaims. “I come from the lake of flame, from the lake of fire and from the field of flame” (ch. 98). The wicket-gate corresponds to the secret doorway of the mysteries; the “Slough of Despond” to the marshes in the mythos; the “Hill Difficulty” to the Mount of Ascent up which the Osiris climbs with “his staff in his hand”. The Manes forgets his name; Christian forgets his roll, the roll that was his guide book for the journey and his passport to the celestial city. The prototypal valley of the shadow of death is the Aar-en-tet in Amenta. This is the valley of darkness and death (Rit., ch. 19; 13, 6). The Ritual says, “Let not the Osiris advance into the valley of darkness” where the twice-dead were buried for ever by the great annihilator Seb. The monster Apap is the original Apollyon. The equipment of Christian in his armour for his conflict \with Apollyon in the Valley of Humiliation is one with the equipment of the Osiris, who enters the valley “glorious and well equipped” for the battle with his adversary the dragon. The fight of Christian and Apollyon is identical \with the contest between Ra and Apap. All the time of his struggle Apollyon fought with yells and hideous roarings; Apap with “the voice of strong bellowings ” (Rit., ch. 39). Christian passes by the mouth of hell; the Osiris passes by the ten hells, with all of them, as it were, making mouths at him for their prey. There are two lions at the gate of the Palace Beautiful, and in the Ritual the two lions crouch at the beautiful gate of exit from Amenta (Vig. to ch. 18). The waters of the river of life, the green meadows, the delectable mountains, the land of Beulah, the paradise of peace, the celestial city on the summit, all belong to the mythology of Hetep or the Mount of Glory-a bare outline, the mere skeleton of which has been clothed at different times in various forms, including this of the Pilgrim's Progress. Possibly Bunyan the tinker derived the tradition from those travelling tinkers the gipsies. However this may be, the Egyptian Ritual is the verifiable source of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress.


Many illustrations might also be given to show that the mysteries of Amenta, which were finally summed up as “Osirian”, have been carried to the other side of the world. In the mythology of the [Page 244] aborigines of New Holland, “Grogoragally, the divine son, is the active agent of his father, who immovably presides over all nature (like Osiris, the mummy god of the motionless heart). The son watches the actions of men, and quickens the dead immediately upon their earthly interment. He acts as mediator for the souls to the great god, to whom the good and bad actions of all are known. His office is chiefly to bring at the close of every day the spirits of the dead from all parts of the world to the judgment-seat of his father, where alone there is eternal light. There he acts as intercessor for those who have only spent some portion of their lives in wickedness. Bayma, listening to the mediation of his son, allows Grogoragally to admit some such into Ballima, “or heaven (Manning, Notes on the Aborigines of New Holland, Sydney, 1883, copy from the author). Grogoragally is one with the hawk-headed Horus, the paraclete or advocate who pleads for the Manes before the judgment-seat of his father. Again, the aborigines of the McDonnell Ranges have a tradition that the sky was at one time inhabited by three persons. One of these was a woman, one was a child who always remained a child and never developed beyond childhood; the third was a man of gigantic stature called Ulthaana-that is a spirit. He had an enormous foot shaped like that of an emu. When a native dies he is said to ascend to the home of Ulthaana the spirit (Gillen, Notes, Horn Expedition, vol. iv., p. 183).


This is a far-off folk tale that may be traced back home to the Egyptian myth. In this Child-Horus never developed beyond childhood, and so remained the eternal child. This was Horus of the incarnation who made his transformation into the Horus that rose again as the adult, the great man, Horus in . spirit, the prototype of “Ulthaana”. The bird type is repeated. Horus has the head of the hawk, as a figure of the man in spirit;. Ulthaana, as a spirit, has the foot of an enormous emu.

The Arunta also have a kind of Amenta or world of spirits under ground. About fourteen miles to the south of Alice Springs there is a cave in a range of hills which rises to the north. This cave, like all others in the range, is supposed to be occupied by the Iruntarinia or spirit individuals, each one of whom is in reality the double of one of the ancestors of the tribe who lived in the Alcherinf!a. The individual spirits are supposed to live within the cave in perpetual sunshine and among streams of running water, as in the Egyptian meadows of Aarru. Here, as in Amenta, the reconstitution of the deceased takes place. Within the cave the Iruntarinia remove all the internal organs, and provide the man with a completely new set, after which operation has been successfully performed he presently comes to life again, but in a condition of insanity. This, however, is of short duration, and the coming round is equivalent to the recovery of memory by the Manes in the Ritual, when he remembers his name and who he is in the great house of the other world (Spencer and Gillen, p. 525). There are bird-souls also in this nether earth, which are favoured with unlimited supplies of down or undattha, with which they are fond of decorating their bodies as spirits.The mysteries of Amenta are more or less extant in the totemic ceremonies of the Central Australians at a more rudimentary stage of development, which means, according to the present reading [Page 245] of the data, that the same primitive wisdom was carried out from the same central birthplace in Africa to the islands of the Southern Sea, and there fossilized during long ages of isolation, which had been carried down the Nile to take living root and grow and flourish as the mythology and eschatology of ancient Egypt.

In the mysteries of Amenta the deceased is reconstructed from seven constituent parts or souls in seven stages of development.Corresponding to these in the Arunta mysteries, seven “status-terms are applied to the initiate”. (1) He is called Ambaquerka up to the time of his being tossed in the air. (2) He is Ulpmerka until taken to the circumcision ground. (3) He is the Wurtja during the time betwixt being painted for it and the actual performance of the ceremony. (4) He is Arakurta betwixt the operations of circumcision and sub-incision. (5) He is Ertwa-kurka after circumcision until he passes through the ordeal by fire. (6) Following this he is called IIlpongwurra, and (7) after passing through the engwurra he is designated Urliara. (Spencer and Gillen, N. T., p. 638.) In the mysteries of Amenta the mouth of the resuscitated spirit is opened and the silence of death is broken when the lips are touched by the sacred implement in the hands of Ptah.


It is said in the “ceremony of opening the mouth”, “Let my mouth be opened by Ptah with the instrument of ba-metal with which he openeth the mouths of the gods” (ch. 23). The Arunta also perform the ceremony of opening the mouth by touching it with a sacred object when the initiates are released from the ban of silence (Spencer and Gillen, pp. 382, 385). A mystery of the resurrection is acted by the Arunta in the quabarra ingwurninga inkinja, or corroborree of the arisen bones, which bones imaged the dead body, whilst the performers represented the Ulthaana or spirits of the dead (p.473). The bones were sacredly preserved by those who were as yet unable to make the mummy as a type of permanence.

Messrs. Spencer and Gillen tell us that every Australian native has to pass through certain ceremonies before he is admitted to the secrets of the tribe. The first takes place at about the age of ten or twelve years, whilst the final and most impressive one is not passed through until probably the native has reached the age of at least twenty-five, or It may be thirty years ” (N. T., pp. 212, 213). These two initiations correspond to those in the mysteries of the double Horus. At twelve years of age the Child-Horus makes his transformation into the adult in his baptism or other kindred mysteries. Horus as the man of thirty years is initiated in the final mystery of the resurrection. So was it with the gnostic Jesus. The long lock of Horus, the sign of childhood, was worn by him until he attained the age of twelve years, when he was changed into a man. With the southern Arunta tribe the hair of the boy is for the first time tied up at the commencement of the opening ceremony of the series by which he is made a man. HIS long hair is the equivalent of the Horus lock. The first act of initiation in the Arunta mysteries is that of throwing the boy up into the air-a ceremony that still survives with us in the tossing of the new-comer in a blanket! This was a primitive mode of dedication to the ancestral spirit of the totem or the tribe, whose voice is heard in the sound of the churinga or bull-roarer whirling round. It is [Page 246] said by the natives that the voice of the great spirit was heard when the resounding bull-roarer spoke. The great spirit was supposed to descend and enter the body of the boy and to make him a man, just as in the mystery of Tat tu the soul of Horus the adult descends upon and unites with the soul of Horus the child, or the soul of Ra the holy spirit descends upon Osiris to quicken and transform and re-erect the mummy. Where risen Horus becomes bird-headed as the adult in spirit the Arunta youth is given the appearance of flight to signify the change resulting from the descent of the spirit as the cause of transformation. When one becomes a soul in the mysteries of the Ritual by assuming the form or image of Ra, the initiate exclaims “Let me wheel round in whirls, let me revolve like the turning one ” (ch. 83). The“ turning one” is the sun god Chepera (Kheper), whose name is identical with that of an Australian tribe. Kheper is the soul of “self-originating force” that was imaged under one type by the bennu, a bird that ascends the air and flies to a great height whilst circling round and round in spiral wheels (Rit., ch. 85).


Whether this be the churinga, the bribbun, turndun, or whirler in a glorified form or not, the doctrine of soul-making at puberty is the same in the Australian as in the Egyptian mysteries.

In the Egyptian mythology Horus is the blind man, or rather he is the child born blind, called Horus in the dark. He is also described as the blind Horus in the city of the blind. In his blindness he is typical of the emasculated sun in winter and of the human soul in death. At the place of his resurrection or rebirth there stands a tree up which he climbs to enter spirit life. And we are told that “near to Charlotte Waters is the tree that Jose to mark the spot where a blind man died”. This tree is called the apera okilchya - that is, the blind man's tree, and the place where it stands was the camp of the blind, the city of the blind, the world of the dead, in which the tree of life or dawn was rooted (N.T., p. 552). Should the tree be cut down the men where it grows will become blind. They would be like Horus in the dark, this being the tree of light or the dawn of eternal day. In one of their ceremonies the Arunta perform the mystery of the oruncha which existed in the Alcheringa. These were evil spirits or “devil-devil men”, malevolent and murderous to human beings, especially to the women after dark (N.T., p. 329,331, 390-1). In this performance they are portrayed as prowling round, crawling, peering about, and seeking whom they may devour. They run backwards and forwards on all fours as beasts of prey, growling and pretending to frighten each other. The oruncha are the creatures of the dark, with horns like the mediæval devil, and they correspond to the Sebau fiends or evil spirits of the Egyptian mythos who are the enemies of the good Osiris in Amenta. These devil-devil men made war upon the lizard men, the men of the lizard totem, but there were two brothers who rushed upon them as avengers, and slew the whole of the oruncha. The evil powers were the creatures of chaos, the spawn of darkness, the devils of drought, with whom there was no law or order. The two brothers = brotherhoods belonged to the lizard totem, together with their wives. This was the earliest totem of the Arunta.

In the last of the initiation ceremonies the Arunta raise a special [Page 247] mound, called the parra, on the engwura ground, where the final rites are performed and full initiation is attained. Here the nurtunga was raised, and the parra mound was, so to say, erected at the pole. Messrs. Spencer and Gillen tell us they were unable to learn the meaning of the word parra. But, as the comparison is not simply verbal, we note that para is an ancient Egyptian name for Annu, the place of the column, the mount of the pole, and of the balance in the Maat. The Chepara tribe of Southern Queensland also throw up the circular mound for their greater mystery of the kuringal, in which may be identified the baptism and rebirth by fire (Howitt, Australian Ceremonies of the Initiation). Amongst the initiatory rites of the Arunta mysteries is the purification by fire. When the initiate has passed through this trial he becomes a perfectly developed member of the tribe, and is called an urliara, or one who has been proved by fire (N.T., p. 271).The natives say that the ceremony has the effect of strengthening the character of all who pass through it. This is one of the most obvious survivals. Afire ceremony is described in the Ritual as an exceeding great mystery and a type of the hidden things in the under world. It is an application of the fires by means of which power and might are conferred upon the spirits (khu) among the stars which never set. .These fires, it is said in the rubric ( ch. 137 , A), shall make the spirit as vigorous as divine Osiris. It is a great ordeal, and so secret is the mystery that it is only to be seen by the males. “Thou shalt not perform this ceremony before any human being, except thine own self or thy father or thy son”. Amongst other things the fire is good for destroying evil influences and for giving power to Horus in his war with darkness. It is of interest to note the part played by the females in the ordeals by fire. In one of these the fire is prepared by the women, and when the youth squats upon the fire they place their hands upon his shoulder and gently press him down upon the smoking fuel (N.T., p. 259). Now in the Egyptian mysteries of Amenta the punishers or purifiers in the hells or furnaces are women or goddesses, and it looks as if this character had survived in the mysteries of the Arunta. When the elders shout through the darkness to the women across the river, “What are you doing? ” the reply is, “ We are making a fire”. “ What are you going to do with the fire?” is asked, and the women shout, “We are going to burn the men”. This occurs during a pause by night in the ceremonies of initiation, which terminate with the ordeal by fire. (Spencer and Gillen.) The concluding ordeals by fire and the “final washing” in the Australian ceremonies can be paralleled in the Ritual. “Lo, I come”, says the speaker, “that I may purify this soul of mine in the most high degree” (ch. 97); and again, “I come from the lake of flame, from the lake of fire and from the field of flame, and I live”. He is now a spirit sufficiently advanced to join the ancient never- setting ones and become a fellow-citizen with them in the eternal city (ch. 98). The initiate in the Australian mysteries having passed through the initiatory ceremonies, joins the elders as a fully-developed member of his tribe.

The most sacred ceremonial object of the Arunta is called the kaltaua.This is erected at the close of the engwura mysteries. A young gum-tree, 20 feet in height, is cut down, stripped of its branches [Page 248] and its bark, to be erected in the middle of the sacred ground. The decoration at the top was “just that of a human head”. It was covered allover with human blood, unless red ochre had been substituted. The exact significance of the kauaua is not known to the natives, but, as the writers affirm, it has some relation to a human being, and is regarded as common to the members of all the totems (p.630). Its mystery is made known at the conclusion of the engwura, a series of ceremonies, the last of the initiatory rites through which the native must pass to become a fully-developed member who is admitted to all the secrets of the tribe, of which this is apparently final and supreme. All things considered, we think the sacred kauaua is a form of the Egyptian ka-statue, which is a type of eternal duration as an image of the highest soul. To make the kauaua, so to say, the pole is humanized. It is painted with human blood, and ornamented like the human head. It has but one form, and is common to all the totems. So is it with the Egyptian ka, the eidolon of the enduring soul. The name of the kauaua answers to a long-drawn-out form of the word “ka”, as ka-a-a.The mysteries of the Arunta, which sometimes take four months together for a complete performance, constitute their religious ceremonies, their mean of instruction, their books, their arts of statuary, painting, and Sign-language, their modes of preserving the past, whether lived on earth, or, as they have it, in the Alcheringa, during the times of the mythical ancestors beyond which tradition does not penetrate. The main difference betwixt the Australian and the Egyptian mysteries is that the one are performed on this earth in the totemic stage of sociology, the other in the earth of Amenta in the phase of eschatology. Also the Egyptians continued growing all the time that the Australians were standing still or retrograding. Lastly, we may be sure that such mysteries as these did not spring from a hundred different origins and come together by fortuitous concourse from the ends of the earth, to be finally formulated as the Egyptian mysteries of Amenta.


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